INDUSTRY Latest updates by INDUSTRY.

Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing

   Assessing The Impact Of Fiscal Shocks On Output In MENAP Countries
IMF Publications - Technical Notes and Manual
March 23, 2015
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.aspx?sk=42765

This note is a reference guide to the econometric work on fiscal multipliers for MENAP countries. Spending and tax multipliers are estimated from conventional VAR models and identified using a sign-restrictions approach. Estimates show that fiscal multipliers tend to be small, except for those assoc....
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   Implementing AML/CFT Measures in the Precious Minerals Sector : Preventing Crime While Increasing Revenue
IMF Publications - Technical Notes and Manual
November 7, 2014
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.aspx?sk=42441

The trade in precious metals and stones has been linked to illicit financial flows, corruption, smuggling, drug trafficking, illicit arms trafficking, and the financing of terrorism. In addition, the extraction of precious minerals and the subsequent trade in these resources, if properly managed, pr....
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   Fiscal Multipliers: Size, Determinants, and Use in Macroeconomic Projections
IMF Publications - Technical Notes and Manual
October 2, 2014
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.aspx?sk=41784

Fiscal multipliers are important tools for macroeconomic projections and policy design. In many countries, little is known about the size of multipliers, as data availability limits the scope for empirical research. This note provides general guidance on the definition, measurement, and use of fisca....
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   Prevention and Management of Government Arrears
IMF Publications - Technical Notes and Manual
July 9, 2014
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.aspx?sk=41672

The accumulation of government expenditure arrears is one of the most common problems in public financial management. This technical note defines expenditure arrears and the different types of arrears that arise. The economic impact of chronic expenditure arrears accumulation is highlighted. The not....
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   Revenue Administration : Administering Revenues from Natural Resources - A Short Primer
IMF Publications - Technical Notes and Manual
June 17, 2014
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.aspx?sk=41604

Many developing countries have significant natural resource endowments, presenting a remarkable opportunity to boost long-term growth. However, this opportunity comes with enormous challenges. To maximize social and economic benefits, strong governance and institutional capacity are essential. Effec....
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Economy-wide

   Public Investment and Public-Private Partnerships
IMF Publications - Economic Issues
March 21, 2007
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.aspx?sk=18456

Over the past three decades, public spending on infrastructure, as a share of GDP, has been on the decline worldwide. Although the link between infrastructure investment and economic growth is not yet fully understood, the quality of infrastructure clearly affects a country's productivity, competiti....
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   World Economic Outlook, April 2011 : Tensions from the Two-Speed Recovery: Unemployment, Commodities, and Capital Flows
IMF Publications - World Economic Outlook
April 11, 2011
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.aspx?sk=24323

The April 2011 edition of the World Economic Outlook assesses the global prospects for economic growth in the face of policy challenges that remain unaddressed and new challenges now coming to the fore.The recovery is gaining strength, but unemployment remains high in advanced economies, and new mac....
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   World Economic Outlook, September 2011: Slowing Growth, Rising Risks
IMF Publications - World Economic Outlook
September 20, 2011
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.aspx?sk=24738

The September 2011 edition of the World Economic Outlook assesses the prospects for the global economy, which is now in a dangerous new phase. Global activity has weakened and become more uneven, confidence has fallen sharply recently, and downside risks are growing. Against a backdrop of unresolved....
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   World Economic Outlook, April 2012
IMF Publications - World Economic Outlook
April 17, 2012
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.aspx?sk=25342

The April 2012 issue of the World Economic Outlook assesses the prospects for the global economy, which has gradually strengthened after a major setback during 2011. The threat of a sharp global slowdown eased with improved activity in the United States and better policies in the euro area. Weak rec....
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   World Economic Outlook, October 2012 : Coping with High Debt and Sluggish Growth
IMF Publications - World Economic Outlook
October 8, 2012
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.aspx?sk=25845

The October 2012 World Economic Outlook (WEO) assesses the prospects for the global recovery in light of such risks as the ongoing euro area crisis and the "fiscal cliff" facing U.S. policymakers. Reducing the risks to the medium-term outlook implies reducing public debt in the major advanced econom....
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Educational Services

   Joining the battle against extremism (OECD Education&Skills Today Blog)
OECD - Education
January 22, 2016
http://oecdeducationtoday.blogspot.fr/2016/01/joining-battle-against-extremism.html

Whoever has a hammer sees every problem as a nail. Those in the security business tend to see the answer to radicalism and terrorism in military might, and those in the financial business in cutting flows of money. ....
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   21st Century Children (OECD Education&Skills Today Blog)
OECD - Education
January 18, 2016
http://oecdeducationtoday.blogspot.fr/2016/01/21st-century-children.html

What is the nature of modern childhood? Released today, the book Trends Shaping Education 2016 looks at major social, demographic, economic and technological trends affecting the future of education....
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   Can students be overconnected? (OECD Education&Skills Today Blog)
OECD - Education
January 12, 2016
http://oecdeducationtoday.blogspot.fr/2016/01/can-students-be-overconnected.html

Most 15-year-olds in OECD countries spend at least some time each day wandering through cyberspace as part of their media diet.....
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   PISA in Focus No. 59 - Does it matter how much time students spend on line outside of school?
OECD - Education
January 12, 2016
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5jm5fb7cq0zp-en

In 2012, 15-year-old students spent over two hours on line each day, on average across OECD countries. The most common online activities among 15-year-olds were browsing the Internet for fun and participating in social networks, with over 70% of students doing one of these every day or almost every ....
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   Is the gender gap in higher education widening? (OECD Education&Skills Today Blog)
OECD - Education
January 11, 2016
http://oecdeducationtoday.blogspot.fr/2016/01/is-gender-gap-in-higher-education.html

One of the most remarkable consequences of the expansion of education in OECD countries over the past decades is the reversal of the gender gap in education. From outright exclusion and discrimination in educational institutions less than a century ago, girls and young women have conquered schools a....
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Health Care & Social Assistance

   Graph of the Month
OECD - Health
January 15, 2016
http://www.oecd.org/health/graph-of-the-month.htm

The OECD Health Division is releasing a new series to highlight its work on health policies and data. A new graph will be available each month. ....
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   The Mexican health care system has made great progress during the last decade – but the remaining challenges are daunting
OECD - Health
January 6, 2016
http://www.oecd.org/health/the-mexican-health-care-system-has-made-great-progress-during-the-last-decade-but-the-remaining-challenges-are-daunting.htm

In the ten years since the introduction of Seguro Popular, some 50 million Mexicans previously at risk of unaffordable health care bills now have access to health insurance. The OECD Review of Health Systems: Mexico 2016 finds that the share of the population exposed to unaffordable or impoverishing....
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   Colombia still faces challenges to improve health care quality
OECD - Health
December 10, 2015
http://www.oecd.org/health/colombia-still-faces-challenges-to-improve-health-care-quality.htm

Colombia has significantly improved its health system over the past 20 years, leading to a rise in life expectancy and a fall in infant mortality. To maintain its ambition of universal, high-quality health care, Colombia should now focus on improving efficiency and strengthening financial sustainabi....
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   Australia should build on the mental health reform to strengthen employment outcomes of people with mental health issues
OECD - Health
December 6, 2015
http://www.oecd.org/health/australia-should-build-on-the-mental-health-reform-to-strengthen-employment-outcomes-of-people-with-mental-health-issues.htm

The recent mental health reform is an important step towards better services for people with mental ill-health, but Australia needs to do more to help people with mild to moderate mental health issues at and into work, according to a new OECD report.....
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   OECD Health Update - Autumn 2015
OECD - Health
November 27, 2015
http://www.oecd.org/newsletter/els/health-update-autumn-2015/

The latest OECD news on health, focusing on the releases of "Health at a Glance 2015", the "OECD Review of Health Care Quality: Australia 2015", and the report "Fiscal Sustainability of Health Systems: Bridging Health and Finance Perspectives", among many other Autumn releases, and on the G7 Health ....
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Information, Finance & Insurance

   Global Financial Stability Report, October 2010
IMF Publications - Global Financial Stability Report
October 29, 2010
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.aspx?sk=23543

The global financial system is still in a period of significant uncertainty. Although the ongoing recovery is expected to gradual strengthen balance sheets, progress toward stability has experienced a setback since the April 2010 GFSR. As discussed in this October 2010 report, policymakers in many a....
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   Global Financial Stability Report, April 2011 : Durable Financial Stability: Getting There from Here
IMF Publications - Global Financial Stability Report
April 13, 2011
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.aspx?sk=24324

Despite ongoing economic recovery and improvements in global financial stability, structural weaknesses and vulnerabilities remain in some important financial systems. The April 2011 Global Financial Stability Report highlights how risks have changed over the past six months, traces the sources and ....
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   Global Financial Stability Report, September 2011: Grappling with Crisis Legacies
IMF Publications - Global Financial Stability Report
September 21, 2011
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.aspx?sk=24745

The September 2011 Global Financial Stability Report cautions that the risks to global financial stability have increased substantially in recent months, during which heavy public debt burdens and weak growth prospects in many advanced economies combined with a series of shocks to the global financi....
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   Global Financial Stability Report, April 2012: The Quest for Lasting Stability
IMF Publications - Global Financial Stability Report
April 18, 2012
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.aspx?sk=25343

The April 2012 Global Financial Stability Report assesses changes in risks to financial stability over the past six months, focusing on sovereign vulnerabilities, risks stemming from private sector deleveraging, and assessing the continued resilience of emerging markets. The report probes the implic....
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   Global Financial Stability Report, October 2012 : Summary version
IMF Publications - Global Financial Stability Report
November 30, 2012
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.aspx?sk=25846

The October 2012 Global Financial Stability Report (GFSR) finds increased risks to the global financial system, with the euro area crisis the principal source of concern, and urges policymakers to act now to restore confidence, reverse capital flight, and reintegrate the euro zone. This GFSR present....
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Manufacturing

   Climate disclosure: knowledge powers change
OECD - Industry
December 10, 2015
http://oecdinsights.org/2015/12/11/climate-disclosure-knowledge-powers-change/

Everybody is interested in the impacts of what companies are doing and the environmental practices and impacts of doing business are coming under increasing scrutiny. OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurría looks at how both governments and investors are ready to scale up climate disclosure and the use....
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   COP21 session: Getting the most out of corporate climate change disclosure
OECD - Industry
December 10, 2015
http://www.oecd.org/investment/COP21sessionGettingthemostoutofcorporateclimatechangedisclosure.htm

Corporate climate change disclosure is crucial for providing decision-makers with information that will enable them to integrate climate considerations into their analyses. This side event to the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties will focus on ways to strengthen corporate climate disclos....
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   Currency-based measures targeting banks - Balancing national regulation of risk and financial openness
OECD - Industry
December 10, 2015
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5jrp0z9lp1zr-en

This paper reviews currency-based measures (CBMs) directed at banks in 49 countries between 2005 and 2013. These measures apply a discrimination, such as less favourable treatment, on the basis of the currency of an operation, typically foreign currencies. The new data shows that CBMs have been incr....
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   Input-Output Tables
OECD - Industry
December 8, 2015
http://www.oecd.org/industry/input-output-tables.htm

Input-Output Tables....
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   COP21 session: Unlocking investment in clean energy
OECD - Industry
December 8, 2015
http://www.oecd.org/investment/COP21sessionUnlockinginvestmentincleanenergy.htm

Corporate climate change disclosure is crucial for providing decision-makers with information that will enable them to integrate climate considerations into their analyses. This side event to the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties will focus on ways to strengthen corporate climate disclos....
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Mining, Quarrying, Oil & Gas

   Clean-development investments : an incentive-compatible CGE modeling framework
World Bank - Energy
December 10, 2013


The Clean Development Mechanism established under the Kyoto Protocol allows industrialized Annex I countries to offset part of their domestic emissions by investing in emissions-reduction projects in developing non-Annex I countries. Computable general equilibrium analysis of the Clean Development M....
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   The benefits of solar home systems :an analysis from Bangladesh
World Bank - Energy
December 11, 2013


The Government of Bangladesh, with help from the World Bank and other donors, has provided aid to a local agency called Infrastructure Development Company Limited and its partner organizations to devise a credit scheme for marketing solar home system units and making these an affordable alternative ....
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   Making informed investment decisions in an uncertain world : a short demonstration
World Bank - Energy
February 2, 2014


Governments invest billions of dollars annually in long-term projects. Yet deep uncertainties pose formidable challenges to making near-term decisions that make long-term sense. Methods that identify robust decisions have been recommended for investment lending but are not widely used. This paper se....
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   Does energy consumption respond to price shocks ? evidence from a regression-discontinuity design
World Bank - Energy
February 24, 2014


This paper exploits unique features of a recently introduced tariff schedule for natural gas in Buenos Aires to estimate the short-run impact of price shocks on residential energy utilization. The schedule induces a nonlinear and non-monotonic relationship between households' accumulated consumption....
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   Long-term mitigation strategies and marginal abatement cost curves : a case study on Brazil
World Bank - Energy
March 17, 2014


Decision makers facing abatement targets need to decide which abatement measures to implement, and in which order. This paper investigates the ability of marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves to inform this decision, reanalysing a MAC curve developed by the World Bank on Brazil. Misinterpreting MAC c....
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No Sector

   Family Violence and Football: The Effect of Unexpected Emotional Cues on Violent Behavior
The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press
November 30, 2010
https://ideas.repec.org/a/oup/qjecon/v126y2011i1p103-143.html

We study the link between family violence and the emotional cues associated with wins and losses by professional football teams. We hypothesize that the risk of violence is affected by the "gain-loss" utility of game outcomes around a rationally expected reference point. Our empirical analysis uses ....
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   Outside and Inside Liquidity
The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press
November 30, 2010
https://ideas.repec.org/a/oup/qjecon/v126y2011i1p259-321.html

We propose an origination-and-contingent-distribution model of banking, in which liquidity demand by short-term investors (banks) can be met with cash reserves (inside liquidity) or sales of assets (outside liquidity) to long-term investors (hedge funds and pension funds). Outside liquidity is a mor....
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   Financial Contracting Under Imperfect Enforcement
The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press
November 30, 2010
https://ideas.repec.org/a/oup/qjecon/v126y2011i1p323-371.html

We develop a model of financial contracting under imperfect enforcement. Financial contracts are designed to keep entrepreneurs from diverting project returns, but enforcement is probabilistic and penalties are limited. The model rationalizes the prevalence of straight debt and common stock, and its....
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   Macroeconomic Effects From Government Purchases and Taxes<xref ref-type="fn" rid="fn32"></xref>
The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press
November 30, 2010
https://ideas.repec.org/a/oup/qjecon/v126y2011i1p51-102.html

For U.S. annual data that include World War II, the estimated multiplier for temporary defense spending is 0.4--0.5 contemporaneously and 0.6--0.7 over 2 years. If the change in defense spending is "permanent" (gauged by Ramey's defense news variable), the multipliers are higher by 0.1--0.2. Since a....
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   Fear of Fire Sales, Illiquidity Seeking, and Credit Freezes
The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press
November 30, 2010
https://ideas.repec.org/a/oup/qjecon/v126y2011i2p557-591.html

Is there any need to clean up a banking system by closing some banks and forcing others to sell assets if the risk of a crisis becomes high? Impaired banks that may be forced to sell illiquid assets in the future have private incentives to hold, rather than sell, those assets Anticipating a potentia....
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Public Administration

   Modernizing China's Growth Paradigm
IMF Publications - Policy Discussion Papers
March 1, 2006
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.aspx?sk=18848

China has achieved tremendous economic progress in the last three decades, but there is much work to be done to make the economy resilient to large shocks, ensure the sustainability of its growth, and translate this growth into corresponding improvements in the economic welfare of its citizens. We d....
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   Strengthening Transparency in the Oil Sector in Cameroon: Why Does it Matter?
IMF Publications - Policy Discussion Papers
March 1, 2006
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.aspx?sk=18918

There has been a growing recognition of the importance of transparency for economic growth and social development in oil producing countries. This paper analyzes transparency issues in Cameroon's oil sector. It shows that, while substantial efforts have already been undertaken, continued action is n....
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   Trade Issues in the Doha Round: Dispelling Some Misconceptions
IMF Publications - Policy Discussion Papers
August 1, 2006
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.aspx?sk=19398

The current round of multilateral trade negotiations-the Doha Round-presents an opportunity for countries to reap the benefits of trade liberalization. Unfortunately, a number of misconceptions about the likely impact of trade reforms has, in part, impeded more rapid progress toward completion of th....
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   Lessons from Successful Labor Market Reformers in Europe
IMF Publications - Policy Discussion Papers
May 1, 2007
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.aspx?sk=20652

Welfare states can be reformed successfully, and popular support for reforms can be maintained. But this requires an internally consistent package of labor market, fiscal, and product market reforms, including some kind of buy-in, through, for example, tax cuts. Empirical analysis combined with a se....
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   Conquering Fear of Floating--Australia's Successful Adaptation to a Flexible Exchange Rate
IMF Publications - Policy Discussion Papers
July 1, 2007
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.aspx?sk=21171

Australia has enjoyed fifteen years of uninterrupted economic expansion since 1992 despite shocks such as the Asian crisis in 1997-98 and the information technology bust in 2000-01. This resilient economic performance owes much to wide-ranging structural reforms and the improved frameworks for monet....
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Real Estate, Rental & Leasing

   Local responses to refugee crisis: from initial reception to longer term integration
OECD - Regional Development
April 29, 2016
http://www.oecd.org/regional/call-local-refugees.htm

The OECD LEED Programme launches this "Call for Initiatives" to extract what local authorities and other actors know works, what the new scenario is demanding and how equipped they are to respond. We are interested in learning from the experiences of EU member countries, the wider OECD area as well ....
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   OECD LEED Webinar Series on "Local economic resilience and adaptability to long-term challenges" - Part Two: Resilience in Practice
OECD - Regional Development
January 22, 2016
http://www.oecd.org/regional/webinar4-resilience.htm

The webinars will enable serious discussion on the concept of ‘local economic resilience’ in an informal setting that facilitates interaction and questions. The format will feature presentations from policy experts and a roundtable discussion with the audience.....
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   Project: Local economic strategies for shrinking and ageing labour markets
OECD - Regional Development
January 13, 2016
http://www.oecd.org/regional/leed/ageinglabourmarkets.htm

The project will identify the policy levers and instruments that can be helpful in the design of strategies to accompany the transition to older local labour markets, and identify how national policy frameworks can best support these transformations.....
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   Regional Studies Association Institutional Ambassador Award
OECD - Regional Development
December 8, 2015
http://www.oecd.org/regional/rsa-institutional-award.htm

The Regional Development Policy Division was honoured to have been selected by the Regional Studies Association (RSA) to receive the Institutional Ambassador Award 2015 on 18 November. The award is in recognition of the high calibre of reports and measurement tools produced by the Regional Developme....
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   OECD Urban Roundtable of Mayors and Ministers
OECD - Regional Development
December 3, 2015
http://www.oecd.org/urban/roundtable/

Mayors and ministers gathered for the 6th OECD Roundtable concluded that the solution to climate change will happen in cities. National governments alone will not be able to tackle environmental challenges, sustainable development should include cities and their governments as main stakeholders. Cre....
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Technical & Management Services

   The Netherlands should invest in the long-term sustainability of the food and agricultural system
OECD - Innovation
November 26, 2015
http://www.oecd.org/innovation/the-netherlands-should-invest-in-the-long-term-sustainability-of-the-food-and-agricultural-system.htm

The food and agricultural system in the Netherlands is innovative and export-oriented, with high value-added along the food chain and significant world export shares for many products. To maintain and build on this performance, government policy should increasingly focus on measures to boost innovat....
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   Creating our Common Future through Science, Technology and Innovation: OECD Daejeon Ministerial Meeting, Korea
OECD - Innovation
October 20, 2015
http://www.oecd.org/innovation/sti-ministerial-2015.htm

The OECD Committee for Scientific and Technological Policy is holding a Ministerial level meeting in Daejeon, Korea on 20-21 October 2015.....
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   Governments must step up R&D in frontier technology
OECD - Innovation
October 19, 2015
http://www.oecd.org/innovation/governments-must-step-up-rd-in-frontier-technology.htm

Countries should step up their investment in long-term R&D to develop frontier technologies that will reshape industry, healthcare and communications and provide urgently needed solutions to global challenges like climate change, according to a new OECD report. ....
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   The OECD Innovation Strategy - 2015 revision
OECD - Innovation
October 9, 2015
http://www.oecd.org/innovation/innovation-imperative.htm

The Innovation Imperative - Contributing to Productivity, Growth and Well-Being....
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   Fostering a Data-Driven Public Sector: realising the potential of government data - "E-Leaders" meeting, Tokyo
OECD - Innovation
September 29, 2015
http://www.oecd.org/governance/eleaders/

On 29-30 September 2015, the E-Leaders meeting will discuss how the Public Sector can make better use of public sector intelligence for policymaking and implementation, by better exploiting digital technologies and data, by embedding data use throughout the policy cycle, and by putting in place gove....
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Transportation & Warehousing

   The republic of Congo's infrastructure : a continental perspective
World Bank - Infrastructure
October 5, 2011


Infrastructure contributed half a percentage point to the Republic of Congo's annual per capita GDP growth from 2001 to 2006. If the country's infrastructure were improved to the level seen in Mauritius, the regional leader, it could contribute more than 3 percentage points to annual per capita grow....
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   Zimbabwe's infrastructure : a continental perspective
World Bank - Infrastructure
October 5, 2011


Despite general economic decline and power-supply deficiencies, infrastructure made a modest net contribution of just less than half a percentage point to Zimbabwe's improved per capita growth performance in recent years. Raising the country's infrastructure endowment to that of the region's middle-....
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   East Africa's infrastructure : a regional perspective
World Bank - Infrastructure
October 12, 2011


Sound infrastructure is critical for growth in East Africa. During 1995-2005, improvements in infrastructure boosted growth by one percentage point per year, due largely to wider access to information and communication technologies (ICTs). Although power infrastructure sapped growth in other regions....
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   ECCAS's infrastructure : a regional perspective
World Bank - Infrastructure
October 24, 2011


Sound infrastructure is fundamental for growth across the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS). During 1995-2005, improvements in infrastructure boosted growth in Central Africa by 1 percentage point per capita annually, primarily due to the introduction and expansion of mobile telep....
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   Mozambique's infrastructure : a continental perspective
World Bank - Infrastructure
November 20, 2011


In the last 10 years, Mozambique's economy has grown steadily at an impressive rate of 7.7 percent per year, driven by the service sector, light industry, and agriculture. This pace is expected to continue or even increase with the massive influx of already-planned investment on the order of $15-20 ....
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Utilities & Construction

   Analyzing urban systems : have megacities become too large ?
World Bank - Urban Development
May 19, 2014


The trend toward ever greater urbanization continues unabated across the globe. According to the United Nations, by 2025 closes to 5 billion people will live in urban areas. Many cities, especially in the developing world, are set to explode in size. Over the next decade and a half, Lagos is expecte....
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   Converting land into affordable housing floor space
World Bank - Urban Development
May 19, 2014


Cities emerge from the spatial concentration of people and economic activities. But spatial concentration is not enough; the economic viability of cities depends on people, ideas, and goods to move rapidly across the urban area. This constant movement within dense cities creates wealth but also vari....
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   Housing and urbanization in Africa : unleashing a formal market process
World Bank - Urban Development
May 19, 2014


The accumulation of decent housing matters both because of the difference it makes to living standards and because of its centrality to economic development. The consequences for living standards are far-reaching. In addition to directly conferring utility, decent housing improves health and enables....
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   Housing matters
World Bank - Urban Development
May 19, 2014


Housing matters to the livability of cities and to the productivity of their economies. The failure of cities to accommodate the housing needs of growing urban populations can be seen in the proliferation of poorly serviced, high-density informal settlements. Such settlements are not new in the hist....
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   Infrastructure : doing more with less
World Bank - Urban Development
May 19, 2014


Adequate urban infrastructure can be expensive, but the costs of not delivering housing, transportation, water, sewage, public facilities, and other necessities are also high. Inadequate infrastructure slows and even reverses economic growth, driving unemployment, crime, and urban decay. It can fuel....
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